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Respiratory system of tilapia

MATERIALS AND METHODS The experiments were performed on 195 tilapia (18.2-1720 g) at 25.0 0.2 (mean SD) and 99.3 1.2% in oxygen saturation of water flowing into the respiration chamber, under resting and nonnoxic conditions. Relation- ship of total length (TL, mm) to body weight (W, g) was TL =4.056fV>1 (R1 =0.995) The relationships of oxygen consumption (V o 2, ml/min/fish), ventilation volume (V g, ml/min/fish), stroke volume (V s, ml/stroke/fish), respiration frequency (RF, stroke/min) and oxygen utilization (U, %) to body weight (W, g) in the tilapia under resting and normoxic conditions were V o 2 = 0.002835W 0.754193, V g = 0.688965W 0.722786, V s = 0.002790W 1.017188, RF = 248.58210W −0.296139, U = 0.000935W + 87.394288, respectively

The pattern of changes in the respiratory movements of endosulfan exposed Tilapia mossambicus were taken to suggest that the fish showed adaptive increase in its frequency of surfacing with a tremendous drop in its opercular movements during first hour of exposure to higher concentration of endosulfan.The reduced opercular movement is also considered adaptive for the fish to prevent itself pattern of changes in the respiratory movements of endosulfan exposed Tilapia mossambicus were taken to suggest that the fish showed adaptive increase in its frequency of surfacing with a tremendous drop in its opercular movements during first hour of exposure to higher concentration of endosulfan.Th

Influence of temperature on the respiratory rate of Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Pisces: Cichlidae) in the laboratory June 2016 UNED Research Journal 8(1 female. Tilapia can be sexed when it has attained the weight of 15 grams. Application of ink or dyes to the papillae may increase the accuracy of sexing and may allow sexing of smaller fish. By rubbing ink along the papillae of the tilapia, sexes can be readily distinguished. leaves lek into lek incubation anus dependency; fry and Spawnin Blood moves in and out of the gills through these small blood vessels. Though gills in fish occupy only a small section of their body, the extensive respiratory surface produced by the filaments renders the whole organism with efficient gas exchange. Fish take in oxygen-rich water via their mouths and pump it over their gills

Relationship of respiration to body weight in the tilapia

  1. The respiratory system. Oxygen and carbon dioxide dissolve in water, and most fishes exchange dissolved oxygen and carbon dioxide in water by means of the gills. The gills lie behind and to the side of the mouth cavity and consist of fleshy filaments supported by the gill arches and filled with blood vessels, which give gills a bright red colour. Water taken in continuously through the mouth passes backward between the gill bars and over the gill filaments, where the exchange of gases takes.
  2. The blood vascular system of Branchiostoma is of closed type. The blood is colourless and devoid of corpuscles and respiratory pigment. Blood is found not only in blood vessels but also in lymph spaces, around fin-rays, and in metapleural folds. Its main function is to transport the food and excretory wastes. Heart is not found in Branchiostoma
  3. Generally, respiratory system structure of the bungo fish was similar to the teleostei fishes. Keywords: bungo fish, respiratory system, gills, anatomy, and nile tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus) [1]. One interesting thing is the bungo fish (Glossogobius Cf.aureus.

1. The propodeal spiracles of the honey-bee remain closed in normal air but in air plus CO 2 they open as the abdomen contracts, and close as the abdomen expands.. 2. The first thoracic spiracles remain open in normal air but in air plus CO 2 they nearly close as the abdomen contracts, and open as the abdomen expands.. 3 Interval removal of Tilapia from the system allowed approximation of fish respiration. Water quality measurements included organic and inorganic carbon and nitrogen as well as various plant nutrients. Tilapia growth and feed conversion efficiencies were determined. Materials and Methods Tilapia of similar size (fresh weights of 97+/-19 t

It develops entirely in the early embryonic stage and in the embryonic stage, it plays a role in respiratory function but in adulthood, it has no role in respiration. It receives oxygenated blood directly from the dorsal aorta and it has contact with the intra-carotid artery and blood vessels Bird-like respiratory systems in dinosaurs A recent analysis showing the presence of a very bird-like pulmonary, or lung, system in predatory dinosaurs provides more evidence of an evolutionary link between dinosaurs and birds. O'Connor and Claessens (2005) make clear the unique pulmonary system of birds, which has fixed lungs and air sacs that.

The respiration and circulation process begins when deoxygenated blood travels to the shark's two-chambered heart. Here the shark pumps blood to its gills via the ventral aorta artery where it branches into afferent brachial arteries Respiratory System: Oxygen Delivery System The respiratory system is the set of organs that allows a person tobreathe and exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide throughout thebody. The integrated system of organs involved in the intake andexchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the body andthe environment and including the nasal passages, larynx,trachea, bronchial tubes, and lungs.The respiratory system performs two major tasks: Exchanging air between the body and the outsideenvironment.

Adaptive Changes in Respiratory Movements of An Air

Comparing the Bluefin tuna's respiratory system with the human respiratory system When comparing the Bluefin's respiratory system to that of humans there is a clear difference in the efficiency of the process. The tuna requires a much more efficient system because it gains its oxygen from a denser medium, water Your respiratory system is made up of the organs in your body that help you to breathe. Respiration means Breathing. The goal of breathing is to deliver oxygen to the body and to take away carbon dioxide. The lungs are the main organs of the respiratory system. Oxygen is breathed in and it breaks down the food substances (glucose) to release energy, carbon dioxide and water The respiratory tube and gill pouches are contained within an un-jointed cartilaginous framework, the branchial basket. Each gill pouch has shape like a biconvex lens. Its inner wall becomes folded to form numerous gill lamellae while the outer wall is highly thick

Grilled Tilapia for Uterine Fibroids: A Nutrient-Rich Dish

The respiratory system consists of seven pairs of gill pouches or branchial pouches (Fig. 32.5). In the adult connection between the respiratory tube and oesophagus is lost. A gill pouch has the shape of a biconvex lens with numerous gill lamellae on the' inner surface Gills are the organ of respiration in fish. The gills are in Chambers. During breathing the fish closes its operculum,open the mouth and lower the floor of the mouth. Water containing oxygen rush into the mouth. It closes its mouth, raises the floor of the mouth and water rushes into the gill Chambers

Tilapia Parts And Functions

However, haemoglobin of tilapia in both trials was not affected by any of the various combinations of extract in the diet. Furthermore, phagocytic, respiratory burst, lysozyme activity indexes and survival rate of fish fed with combined extracts were found to be significantly higher than controls Respiratory system of the dog vector illustration - Buy this stock vector and explore similar vectors at Adobe Stoc

These changes move the air into and out of the lungs. Bussin some animals oxygen diffuses into the organism and carbon dioxide diffuses out. In larger animals. Special breathing systems have evolved which use trache. Guilds. On our lungs although methods of gas exchange may differ. Cellular respiration is basically the same in all animals. Run time 13:4 Aquatic respiration is the process whereby an aquatic organism exchanges respiratory gases with water, obtaining oxygen from oxygen dissolved in water and excreting carbon dioxide and some other metabolic waste products into the water. The respiratory system of gastropods can include either gills or a lung. Arthropod Other land-based systems for ongrowing tilapias include tanks and raceways. Both types of systems are used almost exclusively for commercial, intensive culture of tilapias and rely on high stocking densities, high protein feeds and, recycling systems excepted, the utilization of comparatively large volumes of water

The respiratory metabolism of Tilapia mossambica (Teleostei) The respiratory metabolism of Tilapia mossambica (Teleostei) Job, S. 1969-07-01 00:00:00 227 3 3 3 3 S. V. Job Department of Zoology Madurai University Madurai India Abstract Tilapia mossambica (Teleostei) weighing 5 to 80 g were acclimated at 30°C to salinities of 0.4‰ (tap water), 12.5‰ (50% sea water) and 30.5‰ (100% sea. Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, (Linneaus, 1758) is an important aquaculture species in Nigeria and other parts of the world. We obtained specimens (3,5-13,00 cm total length; 1,7 to 49 g) from. The Tilapias belong to the family Cichlidae. Three genera are well-known namely Oreochromis, Tilapia and Sarotherodon, of which Nile Tilapia belongs to genus Oreochromis. This species is naturally distributed in Palestine, the Nile River as well as most part of African river and lakes. It was introduced in the Philippines in 1972

The functions of parts of a tilapia fish are mouth (to eat), eyes (to see), nares (nostrils to detect odors), gills (for breathing) and fins (to move, steer and stop). Also, there is the vent. The taste of tilapia raised in these veritable fish toilets is awful when compared to tilapia raised in clean aquaponic and aquaculture systems, free from decomposing fish poop. Fine-particle filters: Use a bead filter, sand filter, diatomaceous earth filter, or in-line water filter right after your pump, to trap dissolved solids

(PDF) Influence of temperature on the respiratory rate of

  1. Tilapia is one of the most produced animals in the world. Nutritional requirements of broodstock tilapia. The nutritional needs of broodstock tilapia are a challenge that aquaculture must understand to achieve optimal yields. Therefore, ensuring proper nutrition of broodstock tilapia promotes egg and larval quality
  2. Well labelled diagram of a tilapia fish is a high resolution transparent png image. These fish arent able to survive well in waters that get to temperatures below 210c so they have to stay in areas with warm water. Great for new teachers student teachers homeschooling and teachers who like creative ways to teach
  3. Routine oxygen consumption (Vo2) measurements on 54 specimens (0.055-190.4 g) of a tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Trewavas) were carried out using two different types of closed respirometers: a modified cuvette for fish weighing 0.055-0.91 g and ordinary closed chamber respirometer for fish weighin

Respiration is a feature of life and an indicator of all biochemical activities in the body. Respiration involves the exchange of two gases, oxygen (O 2) and carbon dioxide (CO 2). The respiratory system is made up of all the organs that are involved in the function. Based on the presence of oxygen, respiration is divided into aerobic and. tilapia species. Applicable standards (2.2.1) Justification: Tilapias are one of the world's most invasive species. Tilapia can disrupt populations of native species when introduced to a novel environment. Thus, it is important to ensure that introductions of exotic tilapia are halted. Better Management Practices 1 Respiratory physiology: Structure and chemical composition of respiratory pigments, gas exchange concept, osmoregulation. UNIT VI Tilapia: Commercially important tilapia, Different culture systems, Means of intensifying tilapia culture, polyculture of tilapia, Water quality management in tilapia culture, feeds and feeding

The respiratory system 1. The RespiratorysystemT- 1-855-694-8886Email- info@iTutor.comBy iTutor.com 2. Respiratory System: Oxygen Delivery System The respiratory system is the set of organs that allows a person tobreathe and exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide throughout thebody. The integrated system of organs involved in the intake andexchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the body. Introduction: Hello fish farmers today we are here with a great information of Tilapia RAS Farming for maximum profits.Fish is known to be an efficient source of protein and it has the potential to serve the growing demand for protein sources. Cultivation of fish in intensive aquaculture systems like Recirculated Aquaculture System or RAS offers several advantages in terms of productivity.

Respiration in Fish Aquatic Respiration - How do Fish

fish - The respiratory system Britannic

The respiratory system is enlarged- making rapid flight capable. The first spiracles are adapted for air to exit rather than enter. The spiracles contain valves which prevent the backflow of air. Bees can accelerate their rate of oxygenation- increasing their respiration rate. Comparison to Human Respiratory System 7. 2 The respiratory structures and breathing mechanisms in humans and animals. Prepared by Azneezal Ar-Rashid 6 October 2009 Curious to know about.. • Protozoa • Insects • Fish • Amphibian • Human? Respiratory structure of organisms Organism Respiratory structure Human Lungs Protozoa Plasma membrane Fish Gills Insect Tracheal system Amphibian Lungs Skin Mouth Protozoa, eg : Amoeba. 2 Recirculating Aquaculture Systems Short Course Stocking Density Cdensity 1.5 for L in inches (0.24 for L in cm) for tilapia 2.0 (0.32) for trout 2.5 (0.40) for perch density density C L D = density density C L D = One of the first questions that must be answered in designing a RAS is the number of fish that can be carried in the tank Nile tilapias were obtained from fishery farm of the Shanghai Ocean University. They were maintained in a water circulation system at 26° ± 2°C under a 12-h light:12-h dark photoperiod. Carbonate-alkalinity solution, prepared using NaHCO 3 and de-chlorinated filtered tap water, was maintained in a plastic tank and aerated for 24 h before use

Circulatory System of Branchiostoma (With Diagram

  1. Removal of OC increased to 34.3% with the additional harvest of paddlefish and tilapia. OC was consumed in respiration, and some OC accumulated in sediment. Total respiration within the system.
  2. erals like calcium. Fish is an aquatic organism which belongs to the subphylum Pisces
  3. Topic: Respiratory System. Introduction. Respiration is defined as a biochemical activity of the cell in which glucose is broken down by a series of reactions controlled by enzymes to release energy. Your respiratory system is made up of the organs in your body that help you to breathe. Respiration means Breathing
  4. recirculating systems, water in biofloc systems has an elevated respiration rate caused by a high concentration of suspended solids. In intensive, greenwater raceways for shrimp, water respiration rates range from 2 to 2.5 mg O 2/L per hour, although it can be as high as 6 mg O /L per hour. This does not include respiration by the fish o
  5. istration in ular patterns (PAMPs) by specific receptors. There are three path- diet significantly increases resistance to Streptococcus agalactia ways that can activate the complement system: the classical infection between the control and MOS fed group [81]
  6. The routine oxygen consumption of redbreast tilapia, Tilapia rendalli exposed to silt from the Phalaborwa Barrage was investigated under controlled laboratory conditions. Exposure of adult fish to sublethal concentrations of silt did alter routine oxygen consumption by causing increased rates (53-77% from initial) of oxygen consumption. This indicates that sublethal levels of suspended silt.

Tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus is capable of surviving in a wide range of salinities and temperatures. In the present study, we determined how salinity influences the respiratory burst (RB) activity of tilapia. At first, tilapia were exposed to freshwater (FW) or 25 ppt seawater (SW), and serum was isolated from these groups The book is comprehensive with 197 full color annotated plates depicting Tilapia strains, gross anatomy with dissections and histology. Detailed depictions are provided for integumentary, muscular, skeletal, circulatory, hematopoietic, digestive, respiratory, renal, excretory, reproductive, nervous, sensory and endocrine systems The non-respiratory vascular system of T. mossambica gill filaments was studied in serial longitudinal and cross sections. Comparatively few scattered vascular communications occur between the afferent filament artery and the central venous sinus (AVA aff).The efferent filament artery, however, is connected by regularly arranged anastomoses (AVA eff), directly, and sometimes indirectly via.

Accessory Respiratory Organs of Fishes (With Diagram

Video: The Respiratory Currents in the Tracheal System of the

Comparative Anatomy: Integumentary System (Humans vs. Fish (Human: Comparative Anatomy: Integumentary System, Human Structure-of-the-skin-and-subcutaneous-tissue , Human Structure-of-the-skin-and-subcutaneous-tissue , Human Structure-of-the-skin-and-subcutaneous-tissue , Human Structure-of-the-skin-and-subcutaneous-tissue , Fish download , Bird unnamed , Reptile 8qtBohxzZ31KBm7yxzxdfVmc. systems (El-Sayed, 2006). Tilapia culture in Mexico is widely diversified in terms of geography and methods of production. Semi-intensive culture is practiced in small water bodies and ponds, with stocking density range of 4 to 6 fish m-3 and yields of 1 to 4 ton ha-1 per production cycl RESPIRATORY SYSTEM: is made up of Respiratory Organs (Nasal passages, Pharyngeal pouches & gills, swim bladder, lungs & air ducts, trachea & bronchi and other Pharyngeal Derivatives (Non respiratory - thyroid, thymus & parathyroid glands, tonsils, middle ear & Eustachian tube)

Respiration in Fish Biology Edu Car

  1. Animal Respiration. Every cell in an animal requires oxygen to perform cellular respiration. Cellular respiration is the process by which animals take in oxygen and exchange it for carbon dioxide and water as waste products.Animals have specialized systems that help them do this successfully and efficiently
  2. The respiratory system comprises of different organs used in respiration. Respiration involves inhalation and exchange of oxygen and carbondioxide between living organisms and the environment. The organs of respiration include; the nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, 2 bronchi, bronchioles, 2 lungs and muscles of breathing (the intercostal muscles an
  3. Tilapia lake virus (TiLV) disease Department of Agriculture 4 Epidemiology TiLV appears to cause disease mainly in tilapia and tilapia hybrids (Oreochromis spp., Tilapia spp.), but has also been detected causing disease in other wild cichlids (Sarotherodon galilaeus, Tristramella spp.) in Israel and tinfoil barbs (Barbonymus schwanenfeldii) in Malaysia
  4. INFLUENCE OF AMBIENT OXYGEN ON FEEDING AND GROWTH OF THE TILAPIA, OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS (LINNAEUS)* G. G. TSADIK** AND M. N. KUTTY. ABSTRACT. Oreochromis niloticus (8.1 ± 0.5 g) grown in fresh water at 28 ± 2C for 35 days at various ambient oxygen concentrations, below air saturation in static water aquaria, were seriously affected in their feeding, assimilation and growth by ambient oxygen
  5. Background . The paper explores shaping public health impact assessment tools for tilapia, a novel emergent aquaculture sector in the UK. This Research Council's UK Rural Economy and Land Use project embraces technical, public health, and marketing perspectives scoping tools to assess possible impacts of the activity. Globally, aquaculture produced over 65 million tonnes of food in 2008 and.

The potential of duckweed as feed source in tilapia production. Using fish feeds in aquaculture (sometimes referred to as artificial or aqua feeds) generally increases productivity. Feeds usually constitute the most important operating cost for any farm and efficient growth and food conversion are the main keys for profitability. However, to. Solution for Briefly describe the process of respiration of a. Nile Tilapia b. Sparrow c. Plant Trout farmers typically use open systems rather than recirculating ones, because trout require large volumes of high quality, cold water. Open systems leak most of the water quickly, whereas closed systems leak water slowly. RAS are more suitable for warmwater fish such as channel catfish, striped bass, and tilapia that can tolerate lowe

Avian respiration - SlideShar

Fish physiology - Wikipedi

  1. An experimental trial was conducted for 90 days to evaluate the growth performance, immunophysiological response of GIFT strain of Tilapia in biofloc‐based rearing system and to assess the relative percentage survival in 3 days after challenging with the virulent strain of Aeromonas hydrophila.Fingerlings with an average body weight 0.98 ± 0.06 g were stocked in triplicate at different.
  2. Enjoy a sweet potato soufflé instead of a baked potato packed with sour cream, butter, cheese, and bacon. You can mash the potato with cinnamon and skim milk and add some chopped walnuts or raisins for extra flavor. Say no to brown sugar though. Replace white rice with brown rice. Avoid salt and butter as well
  3. Scientists across the globe conduct studies using Wageningen University & Research's (WUR) respiration cells for fish. These twelve tanks allow for precise measurement of, among other things, oxygen intake and excretions by fish. This facility is so unique it has been included in Aquaexcel 3.0, a European programme to foster research on, and collaboration within, aquaculture
  4. ing Land Soil on water quality as cultivation medium and the survival of the fish which are cultivated using the rice-fish culture system, because water is one of the most essential factors for fish culture so that, based o
  5. e the regulation of the de novo myo-inositol biosynthetic (MIB) pathway in Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) brain following acute (25 ppt) and chronic (30, 60 and 90 ppt) salinity acclimations.The MIB pathway plays an important role in accumulating the compatible osmolyte, myo-inositol, in cells in response to hyperosmotic challenge and consists of two.
  6. i bell pepper (soil fertigation), with and without using bioflocs for the cultured tilapia. J Aquac Mar Biol. 2020;9(1):19‒22. 19 ©2020 Martinez-Cordova et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attributio

The respiratory system - SlideShar

Also, Iridovirus reported as one of important pathogens destructive tilapia within intensively produced systems in most Asian countries 31.Moreover, Dong et al. 32 described the isolation and characterization of the potential pathogens concurrently infected in natural disease outbreaks of Nile tilapia (O. niloticus) and their pathogenicity in the red tilapia fingerling model This trial aimed to evaluate the growth performance and hematological parameters of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) GIFT strain during nursery using different stock densities in a biofloc system. The experiment was conducted in circular tanks (400 L) with sexually reversed fish, weighing 6.74 ± 0.37 g, over a period of 35 days. Five treatments with three replicates each were used in a. Fish have a central respiratory pattern generator (CRPG) in the brain stem that initiates activity in a series of cranial nerves innervating respiratory muscles. These nerves burst sequentially in the order of their rostrocaudal distribution in the central nervous system Tilapia is ideally adapted to BFT systems. It is herbivore, essentially a filter-feeder adapted to the harvest of bioflocs suspended in the water, it can grow and flourish in dense systems and is overall a strong and stable fish. Using BFT systems for tilapia production is an obvious choice. INTRODUCTIO

The respiratory system of a Bluefin tuna - Ciara's Biology

Rapid changes in plasma cortisol, osmolality, and respiration in response to salinity stress in tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Molecular & Integrative Physiology, 2010. Brittany Kammerer. Joseph Cech. Brittany Kammerer respiratory system britannica, fish anatomy diagram amp pictures of fish head trunk amp tail, label fish anatomy printout enchantedlearning com, basic fish diagram fins labeled fish anatomy red fish, tilapia paintings search result at paintingvalley com, labelled diagram processing, labelled diagram of tilapia fish, how to draw a fish 15 steps wit

Respiratory System - Passnowno

The resting respiratory rate of young tilapia was higher than that of adults. This result suggests that fish growth can be controlled by regulating photoperiod. In this closed system, tilapia showed normal growth and high feed efficiency compared with the recirculating open tank under a high concentration of NO 3 -N over a 189-day period Fish Ammonia - all you need to know. January 31, 2019 7 Comments. A good understanding of ammonia is a great basis for getting the most out of any aquaponic system. It is a key element in ensuring healthy fish and plants. Ammonia is highly toxic and consequently needs to be removed. If system, stocking densities, water exchange practices and sources, and fertilizer application. The main objective of this research was to determine the association between chlorophyll-a, phytoplankton composition, and dissolved oxygen in tilapia ponds from different culture systems in winter and rainy seasons. This information will be the IX. Metabolism A. Digestive System The structural components of a fish's digestive system include the mouth, teeth and gill rakers, esophagus, stomach, pylorus, pyloric caeca, pancreatic tissue (exocrine and endocrine), liver, gall bladder, intestine and anus.Not all components are present in all fish [] A fish's digestive system is adapted to their food habits 4.2 Overview of Aquaculture Methods and Practices. A number of aquaculture practices are used world-wide in three types of environment (freshwater, brackishwater, and marine) for a great variety of culture organisms. Freshwater aquaculture is carried out either in fish ponds, fish pens, fish cages or, on a limited scale, in rice paddies

Lamprey: Anatomy and Physiology (Intro, Digestive System

Tilapia are widely distributed in the wild in estuarine and inland habitats and extensively used in aquaculture . Engineered NP have been shown to affect the respiratory system in mammals and, analogously, the gill function and structure in fishes , , . Moreover. RESPIRATORY METABOLISM OF TRANSGENIC TILAPIA 399 1989) over 10min cycles, with an automated system described in Steffensen et al. (1994). Briefly, this system alternated 6min of closed recirculation of the sealed respirometer with 4min when the activation of a pump submerged in the oute Fig. 5. Effect of endosulfan on ROS production to evaluate Respiratory Burst Activity (RBA), determined by NBT reduction (absorbance at 630 nm). In vivo Nile tilapia were exposed to 7 ppb of endosulfan and non-exposed control group for 96 h. Results are expressed as mean AE SE and compared by using Student's test

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central nervous system alterations (neuropil vacuolation and meningoencephalitis, respectively), and a novel enveloped RNA-virus causing ocular, cutaneous, and meningeal pathol-ogy. A novel cause of tilapia mortality suspected of having a viral etiology is syncytial hepatitis of tilapia (SHT), which ha Fish were also checked for phagocytic activity, lysozyme activity and respiratory burst activity. A second group of 50 tilapia raised for 21 days on the diets and feeding practices established was challenged with the pathogenic bacteria A. hydrophilia, the researchers said. A control group in the trial was not injected with the pathogen Fish - Structure and Function. Fish are vertebrate animals, that is, they all have a vertebral column or 'spine'. There are two main groups of fish, bony fish ( Teleosts) and cartilaginous fish ( Elasmobranchs ). As the common names imply, the skeletons of teleosts are made of bone while the elasmobranchs have cartilaginous skeletons